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Which Two Sentences Best Describe The Effects Of The Agreements At The Congress Of Vienna

The uprisings were led by fragile ad hoc coalitions of reformers, middle classes and workers that did not last long. Tens of thousands of people were killed and many more forced into exile. Important lasting reforms include the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, and the introduction of parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands. The revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, the states that were to form the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Italy and the Austrian Empire. Two different periods can be seen roughly in the history of the European Concert. In the first, which lasted until the early 1860s, the system worked quite well. In the Greek question or the events that affected Belgium or Egypt, the principles on which the concert was based allowed negotiated solutions, and when there were conflicts, they were prevented from spreading throughout the continent. Even the violent and murderous Crimean war, which pitted Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire against Russian ambitions across the Bosphorus, remained localized. The Paris Congress of 1856, which ended the war, can be considered the highlight of the concert. It was also the time when Great Britain, whose continental policy aimed at balance, engaged sometimes against France, sometimes against Russia, thus acting as the arbiter of Europe. The second period is more complex. The logic of the concert first came up against the unstoppable rise of nationalism, whose revolutionary manifestations had hitherto been reduced by the powers in the name of order and stability of the system. The assertion of Prussia in the 1860s – successively victorious over Denmark, Austria and France – and then the birth of the German Empire in 1871 were disturbing elements.

Britain, which engaged in colonial conquests, allowed it because it did not regret having witnessed the collapse of the Second Empire, and in any case did not have the military means to intervene on the continent against the Prussian army. The Congress of Vienna dissolved the Napoleonic world and sought to restore the monarchies that Napoleon had overthrown, ushering in an era of reaction. Under the leadership of Metternich, Prime Minister of Austria (1809–48) and Lord Castlereagh, British Foreign Secretary (1812–22), Congress established a system of peacekeeping. As part of the European Concert, the great European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and (after 1818) France – pledged to meet regularly to settle their differences. The goal was not simply to restore the old borders, but to change the size of the major powers so that they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives who had little use for republicanism or revolution, both of whom threatened to disrupt the status quo in Europe. This plan was the first of its kind in European history and seemed to promise a way to settle European affairs together and promote peace. The congress resolved the Polish-Saxon crisis in Vienna and the question of Greek independence in Ljubljana. Three major European congresses were held. The Congress of Aachen (1818) put an end to the occupation of France.

The others made no sense, for each nation realized that the Congresses were not to its advantage, as disputes were resolved with diminishing efficiency. The European Concert was the special expression of an international system based on balance. It was founded in Vienna in 1815 and collapsed a century later with the outbreak of World War I. It had characteristics that distinguished it from the order that emerged from the Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth century and the Treaty of Utrecht in the eighteenth century, even though the principles underlying it were essentially related to the balance of power. .